[{"field_id":"2","field_parentid":"1","field_title":"\u7b56\u5212\u521b\u610f","field_content":"","field_sort":"0","field_typeinfo":"17","field_tonav":"1","field_display":"0","field_title_en":"","field_outside":"","field_bonav":"0","field_cenav":"0","field_openmode":"0","field_pic":"images\/img\/chcy.jpg","field_bgimg":"images\/img\/bottom1.jpg","field_url":"products","field_source":"qb_images"},{"field_id":"3","field_parentid":"1","field_title":"\u7f16\u8f91\u8bbe\u8ba1","field_content":"","field_sort":"10","field_typeinfo":"17","field_tonav":"1","field_display":"0","field_title_en":"","field_outside":"","field_bonav":"0","field_cenav":"0","field_openmode":"0","field_pic":"images\/img\/bjsj.jpg","field_bgimg":"images\/img\/bottom2.jpg","field_url":"products","field_source":"qb_images"},{"field_id":"60","field_parentid":"1","field_title":"\u51fa\u7248\u5370\u52a1","field_content":"","field_sort":"20","field_typeinfo":"17","field_tonav":"1","field_display":"0","field_title_en":"","field_outside":"","field_bonav":"0","field_cenav":"0","field_openmode":"0","field_pic":"images\/img\/cbyw.jpg","field_bgimg":"images\/img\/bottom3.jpg","field_url":"products","field_source":"qb_images"},{"field_id":"18","field_parentid":"1","field_title":"\u6570\u5b57\u8fdc\u8fd1","field_content":"","field_sort":"30","field_typeinfo":"17","field_tonav":"1","field_display":"0","field_title_en":"","field_outside":"","field_bonav":"0","field_cenav":"0","field_openmode":"0","field_pic":"images\/img\/szyj.jpg","field_bgimg":"images\/img\/bottom3.jpg","field_url":"products","field_source":"qb_images"},{"field_id":"62","field_parentid":"1","field_title":"\u6587\u5316\u827a\u672f","field_content":"","field_sort":"40","field_typeinfo":"2","field_tonav":"1","field_display":"0","field_title_en":"","field_outside":"","field_bonav":"0","field_cenav":"0","field_openmode":"0","field_pic":"images\/img\/whys.jpg","field_bgimg":"images\/img\/bottom1.jpg","field_url":"articles","field_source":"qb_news"},{"field_id":"17","field_parentid":"1","field_title":"\u7cbe\u82f1\u56e2\u961f","field_content":"","field_sort":"50","field_typeinfo":"17","field_tonav":"1","field_display":"0","field_title_en":"","field_outside":"","field_bonav":"0","field_cenav":"0","field_openmode":"0","field_pic":"images\/img\/twk.jpg","field_bgimg":"images\/img\/bottom2.jpg","field_url":"products","field_source":"qb_images"},{"field_id":"5","field_parentid":"1","field_title":"\u8fdc\u8fd1\u5168\u666f","field_content":"","field_sort":"60","field_typeinfo":"1","field_tonav":"1","field_display":"0","field_title_en":"","field_outside":"","field_bonav":"0","field_cenav":"0","field_openmode":"0","field_pic":"images\/img\/gyyj.jpg","field_bgimg":"images\/img\/bottom4.jpg","field_url":"about","field_source":"qb_doc"}]
您现在的位置:首页 > 文化艺术 > 远近文化

美术丨《桃村草堂图轴》:林泉高隐的终极追求

作者:文 | 兰台公子 图片 | 仇英 来源:远近文化 发布时间:2020-07-20


从庄子开始,隐逸文化就占据着中国古代文人士大夫精神领域的重要一部分。这种思想倾向由魏晋传承到唐宋,再经过元代文人地位低下的推波助澜,明清时期文人的隐逸思想,早已不单纯是避世存身的行为方式,更多的是一种精神寄托和生活追求。从仇英的《桃村草堂图轴》中,明清文人隐逸思想可见一斑。



仇英是明代著名画家,与沈周、唐寅、文徵明合称“明四家”,因为他们都活跃于今苏州(别称“吴门”)一带,又称“吴门四家”。仇英晚年客居收藏家项元汴家,刻苦观摩研习古画,据徐石雪题跋考证,《桃村草堂图轴》即是应项元汴之兄项元淇之约所画。



▲ 仇英画像


此画取名《桃村草堂图轴》,不仅因为画中有桃树,更取自陶渊明的《桃花源记》。《桃花源记》可谓中国古代文人隐逸的开篇之作,后世画家在画隐逸题材时多取其意,此图中“桃村”,即取桃花源中古村落之意,来表达隐逸思想。


画卷上方,远处高峰耸立,以斧辟皴勾勒出山石的峭硬,再以雨点皴簇集成林。中有飞瀑白云,缥缈悠然,如同仙境。这一组大背景,也给此图的隐逸情怀定下了基调。



画面中央有一亭独立其间,四周桃树环绕,算是应了题。亭子上方翠柏累累、山石兀立,右侧有一石径通幽,左侧是一泓溪泉倾泻而下。亭中一张席上摆着书卷与古琴,却不见读书之人,只在旁边有一书童蹲在溪边洗砚。


画面再往下,在苍松林中,有一士人逍遥信步,这应该就是此画的主人公项元淇了。在他右上方,草堂就掩映在松枝与石坳之中,堂中一童子手执包裹。士人衣带飘举,体态翩翩,神情清闲,显得十分儒雅。他的头偏向左边,顺着眼睛视线看过去,正好对着画卷左下方捧书过桥的书童。



整幅图意境高远,气氛悠闲。画面如诗入仙,画法精细工瑾,细致入微。通幅大青绿着色,色彩艳丽深重。滴翠的石青石绿、秀雅的淡赭、温润的墨色,自然和谐地统一在一起,营造出超然脱俗的艺术效果。


仇英作为出身寒门、自学成才的漆工,不像元四家中其他三人是文人家族,似乎不具入流之姿,但观其画作就会发现,他被列为“明四家”当之无愧。明代书画家董其昌作书水平忽高忽低,但他在此画上的题跋却写得法度严谨、秀润雅健、一丝不苟,可见他极为重视。而题跋内容,也毫不吝啬地表达了他对此画的赞美:

仇实甫临宋画无不乱真,就中学赵伯驹者,更有出蓝之能,虽文太史让弗及矣,此图是也。其昌。



中国古代文人归隐,大多寄情山水,体味自然之趣,朴素、清雅、俊逸,是他们的普遍追求。《桃村草堂图轴》山石茂林之间,得一草堂、亭台,屋旁流水潺湲、芳草鲜美,再有琴书相伴、童子相携,可以说概括了许多古代文人隐逸的终极梦想。

©2014-2019 版权所有 四川远近文化有限公司

邮编:610031 电话:028-87704565

邮箱:scyjwh@scyjwh.com