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大蜀道丨蜀枸酱从何处来,路人遥指牂柯江

作者:文 | 六柒 图片 | 网络 来源:远近文化 发布时间:2020-07-30

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大蜀道|蜀枸酱从何处来.mp3来自文化远近00:0006:22

朗读:格岩


蜀道是一个内涵极其丰富的大概念,除了翻越秦岭和大巴山的七条道路,即北线的陈仓道、褒斜道、傥骆道、子午道,南线的金牛道、米仓道、荔枝道众所周知外,从四面八方通往古代蜀地的道路皆是广义上的蜀道。

历史上,发生在蜀道上的故事流传至今甚多,逸闻轶事总归不少。

司马迁《史记·西南夷列传》载汉武帝建元六年(公元前135年)唐蒙出使南越国,“南越食蒙蜀枸酱。蒙问所从来,曰:‘道西北牂柯,牂柯江广数里,出番禺城下。’蒙归至长安,问蜀贾人。贾人曰:‘独蜀出枸酱,多持窃出市夜郎。夜郎者,临牂柯江,江广百余步,足以行船。’”班固《汉书》卷95记载同。然枸酱为何物,两书均未做说明,后世不解者甚多。


南越国


这一故事讲的是秦朝灭亡后,秦朝将领赵佗自立为王,建立南越国。南越国疆域辽阔,北至南岭,南到越中,东至闽西,西至广西百色,首都设在番禺(今广州市南)。因楚汉相争,南越国相安无事度过一长段时间后,汉朝开始不断向南越派遣使节和军队,且打且抚。

当时的南越气候恶劣,瘴气遍地,地形错综复杂,易守难攻,几十年时间里,汉朝一直没找到能攻下南越的通道,只好采取绥靖政策,两边的关系也一直时好时坏。

汉武帝建元六年(公元前135年),汉朝使者唐蒙出使南越国。当务之急唐蒙却只顾游山玩水,吃喝玩乐,一副悠哉游哉的样子。此举正中南越人下怀,看出唐蒙吃货属性的南越人赶紧好吃好喝伺候着,谁都不急着办正事。有一天,唐蒙无意中吃到一种酱,味道非常好,便想多买几瓶带回去,问人哪能买到,却发现这不是南越特产,而是产自蜀中,所以当地人都叫它蜀枸酱。


出使南越国


蜀枸酱

东汉人刘德注《汉书》注:“枸树如桑,其椹长二三寸(雄花蕊),味酢。取其实(雌株聚花果)以为酱,美。蜀人以为珍味。”


唐蒙有点纳闷,蜀中远在西南,和南越中间隔着千山万水,商品是从哪运过来的;其次,蜀枸酱在南越是热销产品,需求量大,必定有专门运输的贸易通道。唐蒙敏锐地察觉到南越和蜀地之间,应该还有一条汉朝不知道的贸易路线。他赶紧再详加询问,南越人只当他是在打听食物来源,并无多想,告之番禺西北有一条牂柯江,江面有数里之宽,适宜行大船,可以直接通到番禺城下……蜀中的商品,便是顺着这条江运来的。

唐蒙回到长安以后,立刻找来蜀中商人再细询。蜀中商人告诉他,这种蜀枸酱多出口到夜郎国,而夜郎国的旁边,恰好就是牂柯江。蜀国的枸酱即从成都运到夜郎,再由夜郎转运到南越。唐蒙立马上书汉武帝,建议军队从巴蜀绕到牂柯江,顺流而下,迂回出奇兵攻击南越首都。



之后,南越爆发吕嘉内乱,随即在元鼎六年被汉军灭亡。当时汉军沿唐蒙设计的路线,顺牂柯江一路行军。南越灭亡之后,这支军队回程途中搂草打兔子,顺手灭掉了包括且兰、头兰、夜郎国在内的几个西南夷。从南边的番禺到西南的牂柯万里疆域均归于汉朝。

夜郎古国应地处南北盘江流域,其王城应当接近滇、蜀,在且兰的西边,面临牂柯江。牂柯江的上流临近夜郎,而下流则直通番禺,是古代联系黔粤的水道,属于今珠江水系。正因为牂柯江上临夜郎而下通番禺,所以蜀地商人可以“出市夜郎”转贩南越,唐蒙才向汉武帝提出征发夜郎十万精兵“浮船牂柯江”的制越奇谋。



“僰道”为汉武帝所设犍为郡郡治(即今四川宜宾西南安边镇),据《汉书·武帝纪》光五年(公元前130年)所载:“夏,发巴蜀治南夷道”;《华阳国志》也说:“后蒙为都尉,治南夷道。”这条唐蒙发巴蜀卒所修的道路,据说就是南夷道。这条古驿道自今四川宜宾可直达贵州境内的牂柯江流域。

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