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大蜀道丨苍苍千古,桓侯永在

作者:远近 来源: 发布时间:2021-05-08

道由人而开,亦因人而兴废。有的道路数日即可修成,有的道路却在时光中跌宕了千百年,方才容得下车马通行。今人名之曰洋巴道(荔枝道南段)的古蜀道便属后者。不过,它的开辟虽然艰难,它的路况虽然艰险,但它却埋藏了足够多,也足够精彩的故事。

行走在这条古老的蜀道上,历史的厚重与浩瀚伸指可触,传说中的故事与英雄也清晰可见。其间的山石、草木、云霞、河湖都曾沾染过历史的风云变幻,它们从历史中来,能够带给后来者太多的惊喜与咏叹。

张飞,这位蜀汉的开国大将、名传古今却被后人误解至深的桓侯便在这条古道上有着诸多难以解清的谜团。

今人想起张飞,涌入脑海的或许便是一张黝黑的蝴蝶脸、一声鲁莽的大喝,但这实际上只是后世文学作品的臆想。真实的张飞完全不是这般模样,他虽勇猛,是万人之敌、熊虎之将,但却和“粗人”没有一点儿关联。

《三国志》有载:“(张)飞爱敬君子而不恤小人。”他自己都是不屑于与真正的粗人相交的,又岂会是戏曲小说中所描述的那般咋咋呼呼、粗莽武夫一个呢?更何况,无论是义释严颜、智诲马超,还是据水断桥、大破张郃,都不是一介粗人所能做办得到的。


他是一位儒将,三国志的作者陈寿更是称赞其有“国士之风”。当然,张飞也有着“暴而无恩”的一面,经常鞭挞怒骂下属,不留情面。但这才是真正的桓侯、一个活生生的人,优点与缺点并存。

也正是这样的张飞,在历史上留下了太多的痕迹,也在洋巴道上留下了难以磨灭的传说。

《定远厅(即今之镇巴)志》的《武备志•兵事》引《纲鉴》及《三省边防纪边防备览》曰:“汉昭烈(刘备)取汉中,大兵发葭萌关,由广元、宁羌正道入,张桓侯由定远、西乡间道(即洋巴道)而进。”此外,相传在此之前的建安二十年,魏将张郃进犯巴西郡,被时任巴西太守的张飞打得丢盔弃甲的时候,也是“从间道退”。


时至今日,在西乡、镇巴境内的飞凤山、捞旗河、晒旗坝、拴马岭、截曹坝等处还都流传着与张飞有关的传说。如飞凤山摩崖题刻,笔力刚劲圆润,隐隐之中似有刀光剑影浮沉,相传便是张飞的手迹。当年,张飞由巴中挥师北上,迎击曹真大获全胜,一路追至于此,见飞凤山峰峦耸拔,犹若神凤展翅,正合心中万丈豪情,当即便用丈八长矛在崖壁上写下了“风凤山”三个大字,留存至今。

不仅如此,1991年所修的《西乡县志》开篇更有记载:“蜀汉刘备封张飞为西乡侯。至西晋武帝太康二年(281年)即以西乡定为县名,属汉中郡。”西乡县位于洋巴道的北端,是洋巴道的重要节点。至明朝正德年间,在西乡督战的陕西巡抚蓝璋更因在剿灭敌寇之前曾梦遇张飞,便为张飞建庙奉祀。这座桓侯庙后又经数次培修,至今犹存于西乡县城西关。


当然,关于张飞的封地是否就在今日的西乡县,关于桓侯是否曾进兵“定远、西乡间道”,史界尚存争议。但是穿行在洋巴道上,走过捞旗河、晒旗坝、拴马岭,瞻仰过飞凤山、桓侯庙,听过一个个和张飞有关的故事传说,便会明白三国的传奇早已是这条古道的一部分,张飞的故事必会在这里一代又一代的传下去。





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