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话里有画丨东坡的三个中秋月

作者:远近 来源: 发布时间:2021-09-18

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天上月  窗前月  水中月

瘦鬼说东坡 田牛画东坡



中秋一词,最早见于《周礼》,其中记载,周朝有中秋之夜击鼓赋诗以“迎寒”的活动。大约在唐朝中秋节成为固定节日,直至北宋成了普遍的民俗节日。


宋代《梦粱录》曰:“八月十五日中秋节,此日三秋恰半,故谓之‘中秋’此夜月色倍明于常时,又谓之‘月夕’”。



年至九月,忙碌了大半年,团圆成为了主旋律。2021年9月15日,在中秋佳节来临之际,“瘦鬼说东坡,田牛画东坡”直播间带来“东坡的三个中秋”,知名文创人、作家、书法家瘦鬼杨君伟老师和著名画家田牛代明友老师现场书画,沉浸式描绘千年之前的北宋,苏东坡是如何过中秋节的?






01、天上月


公元1076年的中秋节晚上,密州太守苏轼喝得酩酊大醉,面对明月心潮起伏,发出了“明月几时有”的浩问,至今无人能答得出来;许下了“但愿人长久,千里共婵娟”的美好祝愿,此后无数个中秋之夜,人们思念的寄托有了最贴切的表达。

当王菲用她那空灵的声线唱出《但愿人长久》时,这首词更显得缠绵悱恻,让不少人误以为苏轼当初写这首词是因为爱情。

殊不知苏轼在词前小序就已透露:“丙辰中秋,欢饮达旦,大醉,作此篇,兼怀子由。”

之所以怀念弟弟苏辙,是因为兄弟俩已经有七年未能相见了。值此与家人团聚的中秋之夜,最亲的人却不在身旁,皓月当空,银辉遍地,更添孤独落寞,只好把这思念化作词句,成就了这一千古绝唱。

南宋著名文学家胡仔读后,忍不住在《苕溪渔隐丛话》说道:“《中秋词》,自东坡《水调歌头》一出,余词尽废。”

自此,无人能超越。



02、窗前月


公元1077年,苏轼和苏辙终于在徐州相见,直到过了中秋之后方才依依不舍分别。这是暌别七年来兄弟首次相聚并共度中秋,喜悦之情可想而知。

二人一同泛舟,诗酒唱和,弟弟苏辙写下《水调歌头·徐州中秋》,哥哥苏轼则写下《阳关曲·中秋月》,共同记录兄弟泛舟度中秋的事情。

公元1078年,苏轼在徐州的第二年,中秋夜却憔悴卧病了。回想去年兄弟团聚的温馨场景,今年却独自卧病在床,好不凄凉。

苏轼望着窗外的月亮,去年明月今时圆,兄弟却天各一方,不禁对月感怀,倍感人生聚散不定,遂写下《中秋月寄子由三首》五言诗。

后收到苏辙寄来的长诗《中秋见月寄子瞻兄》,看到弟弟同样也怀念去年一起在徐州过中秋的快乐时光,更有感慨,又作了一首七言古诗,安慰弟弟不必因为宦囊贫俭而错过此时的欢乐,因为古往今来对月题诗者又能有几人呢?

十年后,苏辙写下《次子瞻夜字韵作中秋对月二篇一以赠王郎二以寄子瞻》一诗,依然在怀念那年的徐州中秋。




03、水中月


公元1080年中秋,苏轼因“乌台诗案”被贬为黄州团练副使。经历过一次死里逃生后,苏轼的心里五味杂陈。

古今多少不平事,常使英雄泪满襟。处在人生低谷的他,别说做出一番成绩,连吃饭都成了问题,中秋明月再圆,也盖不住他心中的愁。

要知道被贬之前,不知多少人与他交好,想分一杯羹;如今中年失意,却找不到一个陪自己喝中秋酒的人,只能独自一人在凉风中对月独酌。

中秋月圆,却被云遮,如同自己所遭遇的境况,苏轼不由深沉喟叹:“世事一场大梦,人生几度秋凉?”

夜已深,苏轼独自端着酒杯,望着北方,思弟之情,忧国之心,身世之感,交织在一起,只能借明月遥寄相思。




古人不知今时月,今月曾经照古人。一轮明月,阴晴圆缺,照亮了多少久别重逢的喜悦,牵动着多少思乡游子的心绪。


苏东坡,一个不是被贬就是在被贬路上的游子,最期待的不过是中秋月圆之夜与家人共赏月色。读懂了苏东坡,就读懂了中秋月。


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 The End


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